The knowledge management sequential model. To preserve the value of any asset, one needs to conduct routine maintenance activities. (PDF) HRM IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT | International Research Journal Commerce arts science - Academia.edu Knowledge management (KM) is about developing, sharing and applying knowledge within the organization to gain and sustain a competitive advantage. Protecting explicit documents is a function of traditional security mechanisms such as passwords on documents and secured access to corporate property. Human resource management functions as a main contributor to the employee retention efforts. Performance Management and nurturing (sharing, doing and caring) culture. Olomolaiye and Egbu [39] highlighted the importance of long-term incentives in the process of grouping key contributors with the organization. [21] claim that either personalization or codification should be dominant. The concept of the Human resource management (HRM) had been debated in the literature. }); if($('.container-footer').length > 1){ [21], the chapter indicates complications and inconsistencies when both a personalization strategy and a codification strategy are stressed. Furthermore, Currie and Kerrin [53] placed emphasis on the importance of new employees having a good level of general business knowledge rather than simply having the functional skills required for the role, the reason being that employees with good general business knowledge can more effectively “bridge” the cultural gap between organizational entities. Too … Ananthram et al. It then follows that if the premise of this approach is followed then the debate concerning the knowledge concept is of less concern. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Hierarchal movements are also limited for low-skilled employees. The model takes into account the following facets: infrastructure, info-structure and info-culture. An advantage of using HRM is that it is built through the maintenance and development of human capital and organizational processes. Managers must educate employees on how to share knowledge in ways that benefit the organization as well as their own careers. The collective knowledge of human expertise through their abilities, experience and interaction with the individual’s environment has become such a critical resource to reinvest [1]. Please log in as a SHRM member. Arunprasad [25] noted that strategic HRM practices are significantly and positively related to learning outcomes. Knowledge Management Roles and Organisation. [56] made similar findings that add to Taylor’s [50] contribution in which he found that group-based incentives promote a greater degree of co-operation between employees. Smith [36] highlighted the importance of educating employees to enable them to understand the knowledge concept and the approach to knowledge that their company has adopted. Studies on knowledge workers have found that they tend to have a high need for autonomy, significant drives for achievement, stronger identity and affiliation with a profession than a company, and a greater sense of self-direction. The second contribution can be deemed as the suggestions made, based on the literature review, for the role of various HR practices in supporting different KM strategies (Table 1). [44], who noted that firms seem to prefer unstructured training. If the company succeeds to retain their employees, then the organization benefits from the knowledge embedded within them. Similarly, personalization strategy and differentiation center on new capabilities, innovation and new ways of working. The topics of debate that have occurred in the literature about this subject can be summarized as follows: how and what is measured in the appraisal process, who should be rewarded and the process to deal with underperformers. Bearing these factors in mind, it can be hypothesized that structured training best serves firms that have a codification-based approach. This would develop a high level of self-efficacy so that employees may feel more assured of their abilities and will be more likely to exchange knowledge with others, thus fostering the acquisition of new knowledge and the dissemination of individual knowledge within the firm [8]. On the other hand, the vast majority of training under a codification strategy is concerned with equipping employees with the technical skills that are needed for employees to be functional within their current role. However, when it comes to the few experts that organizations depend on to design products and services, formulate work processes and procedures and ensure customer satisfaction, the selection processes focus on their demonstrated experience and depth of knowledge that could be directly exploited after joining the firm. HRM can also be performed by line managers. This seems to have caused knowledge sharing to be stronger within the company departments but weakened from department to department. policing arm of executive management. HRM remains committed to recruitment and selection, on-boarding, training, management development, performance management, succession planning, career paths, and other aspects of talent management. Individual incentives are important in encouraging an employee to put his/her acquired knowledge into use, while the group incentives encourage possessors to share their knowledge. Synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. One must ensure that employees are bound by non-disclosure agreements and background checks, and that they are trained appropriately. Companies that have a personalization-based approach place more value on personal and tacit knowledge and tend to be keener to engage in the struggle for high retention rates. [3] suggested that a new paradigm of HRM is evolving towards “strategic human assets” theory in pursuit of firm global competitive advantage. So far, the available literature on the role of HRM in supporting KM theoretically suggests a strong potential contribution for HR practices in implementing effective KM strategies. It is widely accepted that HRM is not KM [27]. This can be achieved by using awareness programs and by informing the employees within the company of new processes and procedures. However, much of the literature of KM continues to reflect a techno-centric focus, similar to that of information management, which in essence regards knowledge as an entity that can be captured, manipulated and leveraged. The strategies of the HR manager should be in co ordination with the organizational objective. Unfortunately, it’s not something that happens spontaneously. Despite the ever-increasing rate of change in the corporate world, the HRM role is not likely to change in a significant way. [33] stated that knowledge-based training and development involve regularly developing the depth and breadth of employees' knowledge and expertise, personalizing training to fit particular needs and, finally, ensuring continuous employee development. As suggested by Bontis and Serenko [26], employees’ capabilities depend on their training and development as well as job satisfaction levels. The chapter is structured as follows, a background to conceptualization, approaches and strategies of KM, and then the role of HRM in supporting various KM strategies. Employees have multiple means of communication. The core HR … The Human resource management is very fast growing concept. That said, Kianto et al. How do we appropriately replenish knowledge? Additionally, Brelade and Harman [47] emphasized the importance of the psychological contract with an employee and the addressing of personal aspirations and lifestyle issues in relation to retaining knowledge workers. Moving onto a different aspect of training and development, Robertson and Hammersley [48] stated that training and development needs should be specified by the employees themselves due to the fact that they, more than anyone else, should have an idea of their strengths and weaknesses. The logic behind this thinking is that the organizational culture of a firm may change in essence over time, rather than remaining fixed and static. Human resource is considered as the backbone of any organisation. Thus Strategic Human Resource Management could play a pivotal role in the Performance Management System (PMS) in any organization. $("span.current-site").html("SHRM MENA "); Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. A parallel influence, related to the increasing embedment and dependence on technology within some organizations is the changing nature of the workplace and work arrangements. It was designed to take care about the social environment in the organization. Broadly speaking, HRM should be aligned with KM and organizational strategies, especially as there is a positive relationship between HRM and those of performance and innovation [21, 35, 36]. We must use technology to meet organizational goals and challenges. Over time, old knowledge can become a burden to the organization. This is a potential problem because the knowledge possessed by knowledge workers is typically highly tacit [18]. Reviewing existent various KM definitions and categorizing them based on defining the nature of knowledge, reflects the basic assumption of two paradigms that have been labeled differently. So, to maintain a level of staff necessary to sustain the organization, a large portion of the duties undertaken in the HRM department will be based around the recruitment and replacement of people to fill the natural vacancies caused by high staff turnover. In codification-based firms, employees are trained to achieve specific tasks that generally only need existing firm processes to achieve their goals; therefore, internal training is seen to be sufficient. The first group, outcome, tends to emphasize the coordination of the group whilst the latter two promote cooperation. Over the last years, human resource management (HRM) has experienced significant transformations. The role of HR in institutionalizing KM in an organization Focus on strengthening collaborative team effort to leverage collective knowledge of the enterprise. Horwitz et al. On the subject of why a company may have a high retention rate, the cause among some knowledge workers is a supportive working environment [48]. There is always difficulty in sparking interest in career progression in such mundane environments. They added that high retention rates help to protect the cultural fabric, competitive capability and intellectual capital of an organization. Realizing that, in reality, organizations usually use a combination of the two strategies, Hansen et al. Knowledge management is the way an organization identifies and leverages knowledge in order to be Companies that have adopted the personalization approach like to promote upward movements: it is either “up or out” for some. It should focus on building social capital and knowledge networks. New KM strategies might emerge in organizations that highly depend on automation, artificial intelligence and big data, with a mass customization competitive advantage. With the KM strategy and the implications it has for HRM, there is a debate regarding whether organizations should place emphasis on the personalization-based approach, the codification-based approach or a combination of the two. “Epistemology of practice” follows a duality philosophy that depends upon structurational models, theories of practice and pragmatism [15]. [66] found that employee retention improves the effect of knowledge acquisition and innovation performance. Additionally, Arunprasad [25] found that performance evaluation, in addition to other HRM practices, contributes significantly to the organizational learning dynamics. Cai et al. [38] empirically demonstrated that intrinsic motivators have much more influence on knowledge-work than extrinsic motivators. Accordingly, mixtures of rewards are needed to motivate knowledge workers. Their findings also showed that the traditional roles of HRM practices are evolving to support the achievement of talent management goals such as talent identification, talent development and talent engagement. There is no limit on the number of processes. Knowledge is the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. While the HR department has traditionally been focused on ensuring compliance with employment law and maintaining employee levels, in recent years we have seen a shift in the role to become more strategic and more involved in business operations. In the knowledge economy, knowledge is recognized as the major source of wealth production, and managing knowledge effectively and efficiently is considered to be a key success factor to gain sustainable competitive advantage for organizations [1, 2, 3]. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. if(currentUrl.indexOf("/about-shrm/pages/shrm-china.aspx") > -1) { Hansen et al. Also, training can be classified as internal or external. knowledge management infrastructure, knowledge management process, and organizational performance. But if you make all information accessible to every employee, they can become overwhelmed or access information not meant for them. Debriefings capture tacit insights gained and make them available to the rest of the organization. Further to this, Robertson and Hammersley [48] identified high specialization, knowledge in other disciplines, commercial awareness and innovative ability as strong characteristics on which to base a recruitment decision. However, this might be a limited perception of reality. Licensee IntechOpen. For skilled workers, providing team-based training, project-oriented training, on-the-job training, leadership development and other programs that are designed to improve quickly the employees’ learning capability are vital [8]. Such activities help ensure the integrity of the corporation without much publicity and damage. Accordingly, the selection decision focuses on the candidates’ abilities and skills to effectively utilize codified knowledge, to abide by preset work processes and procedures and to be productive within a short time frame after joining the organization. Zhou et al. Moreover, not all employees are located in one area. However, Svetlik and Stavrou-Costea [10] stated that HRM and KM share common activities, goals and strategies when creating work units, teams, cross-functional cooperation, as well as communication flows and networks inside the organization and across its borders. The recruitment and selection process are what provide the input of human capital. The working environment in a company also tends to repress the full range of skills an employee possesses. 3) What is the role of HRM in retaining employees? These two paradigms can be illustrated in a continuum with a range from IT-based/Hard/Calculative/Mechanistic/Scientific paradigm to a Social/Organic/Soft/Humanistic one. Protection capabilities must be adequate to secure both tacit and explicit forms of knowledge. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Similarly, Gope et al. Svetlik and Stavrou-Costea [10] demonstrate the benefits of using an integrative approach between HRM and KM, where one reinforces and supports the other in enhancing organizational effectiveness and performance. How? While these mechanisms have been implemented in big consulting firms, their diffusion to the rest of the marketplace has been slow. Knowledge transfer concerns various forms of learning, the creation of a knowledge sharing climate, the establishment of training units which assess and analyze training needs, provide and evaluate training, and lead towards learning organizations [10]. They can either be rated as being of equal importance or as one method acting as a primary method with the other as a secondary method. Fan, Christina Cregan, Anne‐Wil Harzing, Tine Köhler, The benefits of being understood: The role of ethnic identity confirmation in knowledge acquisition by expatriates, Human Resource Management, 10.1002/hrm.21839, 57, 1, (327-339), (2017). Applicants now have the option to test from home. Best Practice • February 27, 2018 What is the role of human resource management in an organization? Developing the knowledge worker’s organizational loyalty does appear to be more problematic because of labor market conditions, where the skills and knowledge of knowledge workers are typically relatively scarce, creates conditions for knowledge workers which are favorable to mobility. Both the reviewer and author are compensated via knowledge currency units (KCUs). • The three broad categories overlap and interact with one another. In making sure that all employees have access to the overall expertise held within the organization, a smarter workforce is built who are more able to make quick, informed decisions that benefit the company. Some firms conduct exit interviews and knowledge-capture sessions, while others opt for even more systematic and scheduled knowledge-retention approaches. In order to clarify the role of knowledge management solutions in an enterprise business process, in this paper we survey the market of knowledge management solutions and analyze their functionalities from operational and strategic business perspective. Another popular defense mechanism is debriefings after missions. The IT perspective perceives KM as a process to store information into databases logically and make knowledge accessible [11, 18]. A parallel view of this theory was found by Filius et al. Businesses of all sizes continue to adopt cloud-based applications that are simplifying HR knowledge management. While some need for this role occasionally remains, much of the HR role is transforming itself. Knowledge with strategic importance must be protected from planned and unplanned depletion. Yet, such adjustments, especially when it comes to lateral movements that are needed to form such teams, are somewhat risky in nature, as there is a risk that some individuals may leave their organizations due to this situation [53]. This is increasing the personnel cost due to the labor market shortage and the decreasing retention rate. This is consistent with other studies on knowledge acquisition and knowledge sharing. Thus, these KCUs serve as incentives while rating the quality of knowledge provided. Their role was more closely aligned with personnel and administration functions that were viewed by the organization as paperwork. Others emphasized the need to select individuals capable of adapting to different cultures rather than fitting an existing culture [47]. These characteristics make them likely to resist the authoritarian imposition of views, rules and structures [22]. Protection and destruction practices safeguard organizational knowledge. Notably, competitive advantage is increasingly based on the successful application, leverage and creation of knowledge—especially knowledge embedded in human assets. [42] stated that HRM practices should be aligned with HRM, KM and organizational strategies but also noted that other organizational factors could also be considered to influence the development of HRM practices. At the firm-level, the theory suggests that organizations must make investments in developing the human capital of their workforce in order to increase firm performance [6]. To present a different point of view, Kase and Zupan [35] emphasized the importance of recruitment and selection in being able to find people who fit the organizational culture and support knowledge networks. For companies with a codification-based strategy, personal incentives are more commonplace. Each of those practices is speculated to alter based on the chosen KM strategy; presenting a framework that is useful for practitioners and academics alike. Those research gaps, if addressed, will extend our understanding of KM and the supporting role HRM. Formal training is still important in an organization that has adopted this strategy type, but it tends to play a more secondary role. Practical knowledge or “know-how” is associated with experience, is implicit or expressed only in practice, and is thus inseparable from actions [12, 15]. Dialogs, learning histories and communities of practice are among the techniques that have to be used in order to facilitate tacit knowledge sharing. In their case study on a knowledge-intensive organization, Robertson and Hammersley [48] realized that underperformers were endured due to the realization that the knowledge-creation process is inconsistent and unpredictable and holds the possibility that it may not succeed. It facilitates and motivates employees to share information while contributing to a climate for organizational knowledge exchange. For this circumstance, it seems that the characteristics of personnel described in knowledge worker-based literature are in alignment with those described in the literature published about the personalization strategy. The first is IT-focused, where organizations approach KM in a mechanistic, systematic and techno-centric way to enhance knowledge integration and creation [2, 17]. Moreover, most of the studies focused on a few HR practices and not comprehensively covered HR practices in supporting KM strategies. Gope et al. Both strategies have the capacity to be successful, if the correct strategy is chosen according to the organizational situation. As a management discipline, the field of knowledge management addresses human capital needs, policies, procedures, technology, incentives and organizational culture. The model that has been developed to describe the role of human resource management in the new economy focusses on the integration of intellectual and human capital and information management in the human resource strategy of the organisation. Arunprasad [25] observed that selection criteria of new recruits test for learning ability of individuals, decision-making approach, a desire to share tacit knowledge and readiness to take additional responsibility. In particular, HRM supports employees in creating and managing knowledge through the sharing of ideas, opinions and experiences [8]. However, the most suitable and complete one in this essay is “Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization.

role of knowledge management in hrm

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